God Of This City Story

God Of This City Story

God Of This City Story – This article is about Babylonian gods. For the Swedish black metal band, see Marduk (band). For another place with the same name, see Marduk (disambiguation).

9th century BC depicting the Statue of Marduk, and his servant Mušḫuššu. This is the main cult image of Marduk in Babylon.

God Of This City Story

God Of This City Story

AMAR.UTU; Sumerian: amar utu.k “calf of the sun; solar cow”; Hebrew: מְרֹדַךְ ‎, Modern: Mərōdaḵ , Tiberian: Merōḏaḵ ) is a deity from ancient Mesopotamia and the patron deity of the city of Babylon. When Babylon became the political center of the Euphrates valley during the reign of Hammurabi (18th century BC), Marduk slowly began to rise to the position of head of the Babylonian pantheon, a position he fully possessed in the second half of the second millennium. .

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BC In the city of Babylon, Marduk was worshiped in the temple of Esagila. Marduk is associated with the divine weapon Imhullu. His symbolic animal and servant, whom Marduk once defeated, is the dragon Mušḫuššu.

The etymology of the name Marduk is believed to come from amar-Utu (“son of the eternal Utu” or “calf of the sun god Utu”).

The origin of Marduk’s name probably reflects a geological, or ancient cultural connection with the ancient city of Sippar (whose deity is Utu), which dates back to the third millennium BC.

Neo-Assyrian texts became more critical of the Mesopotamian kings. The location of the statue of Marduk, whether in Babylon or not, is related to the relationship between foreign kingdoms and traditional Babylonian religion. In the 12th century BC, during the reign of Nebuchadnezzar I, the statue of Marduk (previously captured by Elam) was returned to Babylon. The Prophecy of Marduk is a prophetic text that says three times when Babylon was abandoned by Marduk. Some details are covered by a lacuna. The mention of Marduk’s reign in Hatti is thought to be associated with the capture by the Hittite king Mursili I of the statue of Marduk (later returned to Babylon by the Kassite king Agum II). Marduk prayed and lived in Assur, a reference to another conflict – this time between the king of Assyria and the Kassite king of Castile IV, which led to the transfer of the statue of Marduk from Babylon to Assyria. According to the text Babylon fell into chaos while Marduk was in Elam, referring to the defeat of Babylon at the hands of the Elamite king. It says that a new king will arise to restore the Ekursagila temple, a possible reference to Nebuchadnezzar I’s victory in Elam and the restoration of the statue of Marduk to Babylon.

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And his successor Anu, but what special characteristics Marduk may have been overshadowed by the political progress in the Euphrates valley led people at that time to imbue him with the characteristics of the old gods. .

In the case of Ea, the transition took place peacefully and the old gods were not eliminated. Marduk took the idity of Asarluhi, the son of Ea and the god of magic, thus joining the pantheon of Eridu, from which Ea and Asarluhi came. Ea, Marduk’s father, voluntarily recognized the superiority of his son and entrusted him to control the people. This association of Marduk and Ea, while mainly indicating the transmission to Babylon of the religious and political superiority previously enjoyed by Eridu, may also indicate the previous fall of Babylon in Eridu, not of a political character but, due to the spread of culture in Eridu. Euphrates valley from south to north, the recognition of Eridu as an old ctre in the younger part.

When the relationship between Ea and Marduk was marked by harmony and a friendly abdication of the father in favor of his son, absorbed the power and rights of the lil of Nippur Marduk at the sacrifice of the honor of the latter. . Babylon became independent at the beginning of the 19th century BC, and was initially a small city-state, filled with older and stronger Mesopotamian states such as Isin, Larsa and Assyria. The rise of “Marduk is closely related to the political rise of Babylon from city-states to the capital of an empire”.

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Although Nippur and the lil cult enjoyed a period of growth during more than four periods of Kassite control of Babylonia (c. 1595 BC–1157 BC), Marduk’s definitive and permanent victory was more felt in Babylonia.

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When the statue was brought back to Babylon, the Kassite dynasty with a weak defense fell to Elam (1157 BC), and the statue of Marduk was taken to Susa, the capital of Elam.

The divinity of Marduk gave rise to ûma Elish, who told the story of Marduk’s birth, heroic deeds and becoming the ruler of the gods. The purpose of this creation myth is to explain how Marduk came to power.

This can be seen as a form of Mesopotamian apologetics. Also included in this document are fifty names of Marduk that describe all the things that Marduk symbolizes.

In ûma Elish, the civil war between the gods grew into a climactic war. The Anunnaki gods gather to find a god who can defeat the god who stands against them. Marduk, the young god, answered the call and was promised the position of head god.

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To prepare for battle, he made a bow, swung an arrow, held a mace, threw lightning in front of him, filled his body with fire, made a net to surround Tiamat in it, gathered the four winds, until no one could. escape, created seven new evil winds like whirlwinds and tornadoes, and raised his most powerful weapon, rain. He began to fight, riding a chariot drawn by four horses with poison in his mouth. On his lips he held a spell and in one hand he held an anti-poison plant.

First, he challenged the leader of the Anunnaki gods, the primordial sea dragon Tiamat, to fight and defeat him by ensnaring him in his net, blowing him with his wind, and stabbing him in the stomach with a bow.

Th, he proceeded to defeat Kingu, whom Tiamat had assigned in charge of the army and wore the Tablet of destiny on his chest, “took from him the Tablet of destiny, wrongfully his”, and claimed his new position. Under his rule, men were created to bear the burdens of life so that the gods could rest; lower being built Marduk temple in Babylon (from Akkadian bāb-il and Sumerian KÁ.DINGIR both literally translated ‘God’s Gate’; cf. Gesis 11: 9).

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Marduk is depicted as a man, usually with a snake-dragon symbol taken from the god Tishpak. Another symbol that stands for Marduk is the spade.

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Babylonian texts refer to the creation of Eridu by the god Marduk as the first city, “the holy city, the place of happiness [of the other gods]”. However, Eridu was founded in the 5th millennium BC and Marduk’s development only took place in the second millennium BC, so this is clearly revisionist back-dating to increase Marduk’s prestige.

Leonard W. King in The Sev Tablets of Creation (1902) includes a fragment of a list of gods that he considers important for reconstructing the meaning of Marduk’s name. Franz Böhl in his 1936 study of fifty names also refers to the King’s list. Richard Litke (1958) noted the similarity between the names of Marduk in the list of An: Anum and the uma elish, although the order is different. The link between the An:Anum list and the uma Elish list was established by Walther Sommerfeld (1982), who used the letters to argue for a Kassite period compositional date of the uma elish, although the direct derivation of the uma elish list from the One:Anum one was disputed in a review by Wilfred Lambert (1984).

The Marduk Prophecy is a vaticinium text ex evtu (prophecy written after evts) that describes the journey of the Marduk cult statue from Babylon. Narrating his arrival to the land of Ḫatti, in accordance with the capture of the statue during the sack of the city by Mursili I in 1595 BC (middle chronology); to Assyria, where Tukulti-Ninurta I overthrew Kashtiliash IV, who brought the image to Assur in 1225 BC; and to Elam, where Kudur-Nahhunte sacked the city and looted the statue around 1160 BC.

The first two migrations are described in glowing terms as good for Babylon and other places that Marduk kindly agreed to visit. However, the Elam period was a disaster, where the gods followed Marduk and left Babylon to famine and pestilence. Marduk prophesied that he would return to Babylon to a new Messianic king, who would bring salvation to the city and exact a terrible vengeance on the Elamites. This king is understood to be Nabu-kudurri-uṣur I, 1125–1103 BC.

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Found in The House of Exorcist in the city of Assur and written between 713-612 BC.

This is closely related to the theme of another vaticinium ex evtu text called the prophecy of Shulgi, which may follow it in a series of tablets. Both compositions maintain a favorable outlook

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