What Is The Origin Name Of Carbon – Charcoal is a light black carbon residue obtained by heating wood (or other animal and plant material) intensely in a minimal amount of oxygen to remove all water and volatile components. In the traditional version of this pyrolysis process, called coal burning, heat is often provided by burning a portion of the raw material with a limited supply of oxygen through the formation of a coal furnace. The material can also be heated in a closed retort. Modern “charcoal” briquettes used for outdoor cooking may contain many other additives, e.g. coal.
This process occurs naturally in incomplete combustion and is sometimes used in radiocarbon dating. It also occurs unintentionally when wood is burned, such as in a fireplace or wood-burning stove. The visible fire in them is caused by the combustion of volatile gases released during the process of turning wood into charcoal. The smoke and fumes that are usually produced when burning wood are the result of incomplete combustion of these volatile substances. Coal burns at a higher temperature than wood, with an almost imperceptible flame, and emits almost nothing but heat and carbon dioxide. One kilogram of coal contains 680 to 820 grams of carbon, which combines with atmospheric oxygen to form 2.5 to 3 kg of carbon dioxide.
What Is The Origin Name Of Carbon
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In areas where there is a lot of wood, charcoal production goes back to ancient times. It usually starts by stacking pieces of wood on ds to form a conical pile. At the bottom, holes are left for air intake, and the central shaft acts as a chimney. The entire pile is covered with soda or moistened clay. Burning starts at the bottom of the chimney and gradually spreads outwards and upwards. The success of the operation depends on the burning rate. Wood yields an average of about 60% by volume or 25% by weight of charcoal;
Small-scale production methods often yielded only about 50% of their volume, while large-scale methods were able to increase yields to about 90% by the 17th century. The operation is so delicate that it was usually left to colliers (professional colliers). They often lived alone in small huts to carry firewood. For example, in the Harz Mountains in Germany, coal miners lived in cone-shaped huts called Köth, which have survived to this day.
The mass production of charcoal (hundreds of thousands of people worked mainly in the alpine and neighboring forests) was the main cause of deforestation, especially in Central Europe.
In iron, many forests were used as forests, which were periodically cleared and regrown to ensure a constant supply of coal. Complaints about shortages (already under Stewart) may have been the result of temporary overexploitation or the inability to increase production to meet growing demand. The increasing scarcity of easily harvested wood has been a major factor in the shift to fossil fuel equivalents, mainly coal and lignite for industrial use.
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The modern process of carbonizing wood in small pieces or as sawdust in cast iron retorts is widely used in areas where wood is scarce and is used to obtain valuable by-products (wood alcohol, pyrrolic acid, wood resin). allows. . The issue of carbonation temperature is important; According to J. Percy, the wood is brown at 220 °C (430 °F), dark brown-black after some time at 280 °C (540 °F), and at 310 °C (590°F) easily crushed mass. ). ). Charcoal made at 300 °C (570 °F) is brown, soft and crumbly, and combustible at 380 °C (720 °F); made at high temperatures, it is hard and brittle and does not burn until heated to about 700 °C (1,300 °F).
In Finland and Scandinavia, charcoal was considered a by-product of the production of tree resin. The best resin comes from pine, so pine forests are cut down for resin pyrolysis. Residual coal has been widely used as a substitute for metallurgical coke in blast furnaces. The production of resins has led to rapid deforestation of local forests. The cessation of resin production at the end of the 19th century led to the rapid regeneration of the affected areas.
The American form of charcoal briquettes was first introduced by Ellsworth B.A. invented and tested by Zwoyer of Psylvania 1897.
And manufactured by Zwoyer Fuel Company. This process was further popularized by Chry Ford, who used wood and sawdust, a byproduct of automobile manufacturing, as raw materials. Ford Charcoal later became the Kingsford Company.
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This is a pile of wood (for example, an old oak) leaning against the chimney in a circle. The chimney consists of 4 wooden piles, reinforced with rope. Logs are airtight, completely covered with soil and straw. It should be ignited by pouring some burning fuel into the chimney; logs burn very slowly and turn into charcoal within 5 days. If the soil cover is broken or cracked as a result of fire, additional soil is poured over the cracks. After combustion, the chimney is closed to prevent air from entering. The real art of this production method is to control the release of sufficient heat by burning a portion of the wood material and transferring it to the wood parts during the carbonization process. A strong disadvantage of this production method is a large amount of waste (unburned methane emissions) harmful to human health and the environment.
As a result of the partial burning of the wood material, the efficiency of the traditional method is low.
Modern methods use retort technology, in which heat is recovered and provided only by the combustion of gas released during carbonization.
The properties of the resulting coal depend on the charred material. Cooking temperature is also important. Coal contains different amounts of hydrogen and oxygen, as well as ash and other impurities, which together with the structure determine the properties. The approximate composition of coal for gunpowder is sometimes defined empirically as C
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Coal has been used for a variety of purposes since ancient times, including art and medicine, but until now its most important use has been as a metallurgical fuel. Coal is a traditional fuel for blacksmithing and other heat-intensive applications. Coal has also historically been used as a source of black pigment by grinding it. In this form, charcoal was important to early chemists and was an ingredient in formulas for compounds such as black powder. Due to its large surface area, charcoal can be used as a filter, catalyst or adsorbent.
In comparison, iron has a melting point of about 1200 to 1550 °C (2190 to 2820 °F). Due to its porosity, it prevents air flow and the heat generated can be reduced by controlling the air flow to the flame. For this reason, coal is still widely used by blacksmiths. Since Roman times, coal has been used to produce iron and in modern times steel, where it also provides the necessary carbon. Coal briquettes can burn up to about 1260°C (2300°F) in a forced air furnace.
In the 16th century, iron had to pass laws to prevent the country from being completely dehydrated due to iron production.
In the 19th century, because of the cost of coal, coke was largely replaced in steelmaking, although coke usually added sulfur and sometimes other harmful impurities to cast iron. Forested metallurgical regions deprived of coal, such as Sweden, the Urals or Siberia, were converted to coal in the early 20th century.
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Historically, coal was used in large quantities to smelt iron in block mills, and then in blast furnaces and forges to make jewelry. This use was replaced by coal as part of the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century.
Before the Industrial Revolution, coal was sometimes used as a cooking fuel. Smokeless fuel is considered; that is, the carbon is clean enough that burning it pollutes the air significantly less than burning the original non-carbonaceous organic material. In the 20th century, clean air legislation required the use of smokeless fuels (mainly coke or coal) in many parts of Europe. In the 21st century, charcoal is promoted as a way to improve the health of people who burn raw biomass for cooking and/or heating. Modern “charcoal” briquettes, commonly used for outdoor cooking, are made from coal, but may contain coal as an energy source, as well as accelerators, binders, and fillers.
A barbecue grill can be used to hold charcoal and use it for cooking. A small Japanese charcoal grill is known as a shichirin. A brazier is a vessel used to burn coal or other solid fuel.
Coal is more difficult to burn than wood, and a lighter fluid can be used than coal. Chimney or electric coal starters are tools that help start coal fires.
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Some types of coal, such as charcoal,
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